Back in February, Viktor Charypar, Tech Director at Red badger explained the benefits of using a monorepo. For many teams, especially those without the resources or a highly developed and well-supported engineering culture, the idea of a monorepo might sound a little strange – following on from this piece, I spoke to Viktor to get a little bit more detail on the benefits of a monorepo and why engineering teams should seriously consider using them. But I didn’t just speak to him about monorepos – I was also interested in how Red Badger builds a forward thinking engineering culture that can empower its clients, and how the team embraces continuous learning to ensure everyone is on top of the trends and tools that are going to be impacting digital transformation in the future. So, let’s take a look at what Viktor had to say… Why monorepos now? Richard Gall: Why a monorepo now? If you’re dealing with multiple microservices doesn’t it make sense to separate source code? Viktor Charypar: It would seem to make sense, but microservices architecture actually introduces a new level of complexity that needs to be managed, which monorepos make much easier. The main issue is in dependencies between the services and the contracts they agree to exchange data. If one side of the contract changes in an incompatible way without the other side adapting to that change, the system no longer works. This problem grows with the number of services in the system and so it’s especially prominent in microservices architectures. Managing each service’s source code in a separate repository makes it more difficult to understand its ties to the rest of the system. This forces you to adopt some kind of external versioning scheme, such as semantic versioning, to express which revisions of services work together as things change. These versions are decided by engineers manually as changes are made according to a set of rules, and then the dependent services are updated to refer to the latest version of the service they consume, when they are changed to be compatible. This is time-consuming and error-prone. In a monorepo, all the components of the system are versioned together and changes can be made across the system. This not only means an external versioning scheme is not required, but it also makes it easier to test and enforce contracts between services. Monorepos really come to their own when they are coupled with a Continuous Integration system aware of the dependencies between components in the repo. Given a change made by a developer and the knowledge of the dependency “graph”, we can deterministically decide which system components can be affected by the change and therefore need to be retested. It is then up to owners of each service to do a level of testing of their dependencies to make sure their behaviour didn’t change significantly enough to break their own functionality. All this is automated and can be executed without human intervention. Humans just make changes to the software and express expectations on their dependencies in terms of contracts and tests. Read next: Mozilla’s updated policies will ban extensions with obfuscated code Digital transformation challenges RG: What common problems are clients coming to you with? VC: In general, our clients recognise they need help with their digital product capabilities, i.e. delivering interesting propositions to their customers as digital products, typically websites and mobile apps. In large enterprise companies, this ability is generally predicated on going through a digital transformation – adopting agile delivery methods, breaking down functional silos and working in cross-discipline, vertically aligned teams that can decide things quickly and adapt to how customers respond to their product offering. Our clients typically come to us with one of a few problems ranging from needing help with product strategy, i.e. what to offer their customers and how to find which of the many ideas have a market fit. Through knowing what to do but struggling to deliver it at pace, all the way to already having a digital product offering, but one which doesn’t perform as expected. Either from the perspective of customer behaviour (e.g. low conversion rate) or from a technical quality perspective, i.e. the website is unstable, struggles under high load, there are long outages, etc. While our strength is traditionally in fast product delivery and quality, we can help across the board, from product strategy to what we call empower and embed – demonstrating how to deliver digital products quickly, sustainably and with high quality, helping to build internal capability and then handing over to them. Essentially we want to help our clients build sustainable businesses. Read next: Linux forms Urban Computing Foundation: Set of open source tools to build autonomous vehicles and smart infrastructure Learning and assessing new software and tools RG: How do you stay on top of new tools? Do you have a learning culture at Red Badger? VC: We absolutely do, from simple day to day things like all engineers being encouraged to pair program to learn from each other or everyone in the company having a yearly training budget as one of the benefits, to doing things like a yearly internal mini conference called Tech Lab for all the engineers to get together and share latest learnings and general experience from projects. We have actually recently published a report which started with an activity at the last Tech Lab, which answers a lot of the questions above. It’s available on our website here (and we’ll also follow it with a series of events). We also run a few regular meetups in London, the biggest being the London React Meetup, which we’ve been hosting regularly for about four years. RG: How do you assess tools? VC: There are a few things we generally look at. The first is obviously experimenting with the tool to work out what it does and how. We’re in a privileged position of starting new projects, often greenfield ones, fairly regularly. We typically use about 80% of tools we know and trust and about 20% of new ones, which we want to try out “in anger” and learn about. We also look at who is behind these tools, which are generally open source, and whether there is momentum behind them and support from the community. Open source software typically goes through a period of rapid innovation and competition in a certain area and then, eventually, the community settles on a few options that work the best and fit the different problems people are trying to solve. The future of open source – is it sustainable? RG: How do you see the future of open source – is it sustainable on its current model? VC: That’s an interesting thing to think about! It seems like the open source model is widely misunderstood as software being built by dedicated developers in their free time. But in reality, most large, popular open source projects are backed by large software companies and people maintain them as their day job – for example, Linux, Kubernetes, React. Even the web standards are set by standard bodies comprised of professionals supported by the major browser vendors. I think the model with a sole maintainer working on something in their spare time doesn’t really work if their project gets very popular and the demand on their time grows. We all know how people tend to behave on the internet and software industry is no exception, so maintainers who do it as a hobby are at a pretty high risk of burning out. For the major open source projects, this seems to be more of an exception, as they are typically maintained by a team of people employed by a company invested in the project. The sponsor benefits from the community contributions and, if the project gets popular, from controlling the direction of a de facto standard and the community benefits from someone else doing the lion’s share of the work. I look at it as being similar to science, where different people publicly contribute to push the boundaries of knowledge, just because pooling resources makes more sense and doesn’t stop any individual contributor from profiting on the results. In that sense, I think it’s a pretty sustainable model and leads to better quality, more versatile software.